Pedro de Medina was born in Seville in 1493. He was a Spanish cartographer, geographer, astronomer and author of important works on navigation. He served as a librarian for the Duke of Medina-Sidonia and compiled maps and devices for navigation on behalf of Emperor Charles V (Carlos I). 1549 he was appointed Cosmografo de Honor.
His famous major work Arte de navegar (The Art of Navigation) was published in 1545. The book was an overview of the existing knowledge on the subject and is regarded as the most influential work of the 16th century on navigation. Even Francis Drake carried a French edition from 1554.